About the IIAG
Methodology
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  • The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is a tool that measures and monitors governance performance in African countries.

    The Mo Ibrahim Foundation (MIF) defines governance as:

    the provision of the political, social and economic public goods and services that every citizen has the right to expect from their state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens.

    In the IIAG, country performance in delivering governance is measured across four key components that effectively provide indicators of a countries 'Overall Governance' performance.

    The key components that form the four categories of the IIAG as described in the diagram below are: Safety & Rule of Law, Participation & Human Rights, Sustainable Economic Opportunity and Human Development. Each of these categories contain sub-categories under which we have organised various indicators that provide quantifiable measures of the overarching dimensions of governance. In total, the IIAG contains 100 indicators.

    Measure Overview

    Published since 2007, the IIAG was created to provide a quantifiable tool to measure and monitor governance performance in African countries, to assess their progress over time and to support the development of effective and responsive policy solutions. The IIAG focuses on measuring outputs and outcomes of policy, rather than declarations of intent, de jure statutes and levels of expenditure.

    The IIAG provides data measuring the governance performance across all the dimensions described above for all 54 African countries for the years from 2000-2017. In order to provide a broad, documented and impartial picture of governance performance in every African country, the indicators used to measure governance in Africa are collected from 36 independent sources

    The entire Index time series is updated every year to ensure that each new IIAG provides the most accurate data available. This process ensures that the Index is the most robust and up-to-date dashboard of the state of governance in every African country.

    The Mo Ibrahim Foundation is fully transparent. We publish all country scores, full details and all information regarding the construction of the IIAG is available on our website

  • Synthesis of the Methodology

    The IIAG governance framework comprises four categories: Safety & Rule of Law, Participation & Human Rights, Sustainable Economic Opportunity and Human Development. These categories are made up of 14 sub-categories, consisting of 100 indicators. The 2017 IIAG is calculated using data from 36 independent, external data sources.

    The IIAG is refined on an annual basis. Refinements may be methodological, or based on the inclusion or exclusion of indicators. When new historical data are made available, or the structure of the IIAG is strengthened, the entire data set is updated back to 2000. Users of the Index should therefore always reference the most recent version of the IIAG data set.

    Calculation Stages

    • Indicators that are consistent with the Foundation’s definition of governance and meet specific standards of quality, periodicity and country coverage are selected and missing raw data values are estimated.
    • Raw data come in different scales from source. In order to be compared and combined, data are transformed to a standardised range of 0-100, where 100 is the best possible score.
    • Once the 100 indicators have been transformed to a common scale, a simple method of aggregation is applied to calculate the scores. The overall score is the average of the underlying category scores; the category scores the average of their underlying sub-categories, and the sub-categories the average of their constituent indicators.

    Note on Decimal Place Precision in the 2017 IIAG

    All figures on IIAG outputs are displayed to one decimal place. The calculation method to arrive at these scores is as follows:

    • Country scores are calculated on full-precision raw data values (using the exact values as they are collected from source). All scores are then rounded to one decimal place.
    • Group averages are calculated on the rounded, one decimal place country scores.
    • Both trends over time and ranks are calculated on the scores to one decimal place.

    The exception to this are the annual average trend figures. These are calculated on the rounded trends over time, and displayed to two decimal places. Classifications are assigned based on the full precision of the annual average trend.

    The full methodology and additional IIAG resources can be found on our website

  • The 2017 IIAG key messaging, full dataset and analysis tool can be downloaded below. Further documents, including individual country profiles and the methodology, are available on the MIF website

    Key messages

    Data and analysis files

    Technical resources including confidence intervals and raw data used to calculate IIAG scores can be downloaded on our website

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IBRAHIM INDEX OF AFRICAN GOVERNANCE (IIAG)

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Overall Governance

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  • Welcome

    The Ibrahim Index of African Governance provides an annual statistical 
    assessment of the quality of governance in every African country.

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About {location}

Region: {region}

REC membership(s): {memberships}

2017 IIAG Summary

Overall governance

{governance_summary}

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About {classification}

In the 2017 IIAG publications we classify countries into groups based on the annual average trend (AAT) over two time periods: the last 10 years (2007-2016) and the last five years (2012-2016). The explanation of these classifications can be seen below.

Where trends are static (show no change), the following classifications are applied: Static (over ten years) to decline (over five years): ‘Warning Signs’ | Improve (over ten years) to static (over five years): ‘Warning Signs’ | Decline (over ten years) to static (over five years): ‘Bouncing Back’ | Static (over ten years) to improve (over five years): ‘Bouncing Back’

A 'No Change' classification is applied in three instances. 1. When the annual average trend is exactly the same in both periods (if annual average trend appears the same but a classification is given, differences will exist beyond the second decimal place). 2. When a country/group achieves the best possible score (100.0) in 2012 and in 2016. 3. When a country/group achieves the worst possible score (0.0) in 2012 and 2016. In these latter two, no classification can be applied as scores cannot go higher or lower.

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About {subject}

2017 IIAG Summary

The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG) is an annually published index that provides a statistical measure of governance performance in every African country. Governance is defined by the Mo Ibrahim Foundation as the provision of the political, social and economic public goods and services that every citizen has the right to expect from their state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens. This definition is focused on outputs and outcomes of policy.

The IIAG governance framework comprises four categories: Safety & Rule of Law, Participation & Human Rights, Sustainable Economic Opportunity and Human Development. These categories are made up of 14 sub-categories, consisting of 100 indicators. The 2017 IIAG is calculated using data from 36 independent, external data sources.

The IIAG is refined on an annual basis. Refinements may be methodological, or based on the inclusion or exclusion of indicators. When new historical data are made available, or the structure of the IIAG is strengthened, the entire data set is updated back to 2000. Users of the Index should therefore always reference the most recent version of the IIAG data set.

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